I started looking at the production, use and disposal of electronic goods to figure out the environmental impacts along each of these stages. I found a paper that revealed just how much energy it takes to produce a mobile phone, which analysed the four processes involved in mobile phone production. The final result: the production of one mobile phone is equal to the energy of 175 one-tonne vehicles moving at 100 mph (source at the end of post).
Energy use breakdown
Here’s the joulific breakdown of energy required to produce a phone. Manufacturing mobile phones occurs in four stages, listed below.
- Materials extraction 23MJ
- Component manufacturing 120MJ
- Assembly 2MJ
- Packaging & transport 30MJ
Measuring the energy in joules- bite size recap
The units used for measuring energy use is joules. A joule represents the work done in applying a force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one metre per second, per second (no type here). What on earth does this mean?
Here are some practical examples, straight from Wiki-P:
One joule in everyday life is approximately:
- the energy required to lift a small apple one metre straight up. (A mass of about 102 g)
- the energy released when that same apple falls one metre to the ground.
- the energy released as heat by a person at rest, every 1/60th of a second.
- the kinetic energyof a 50 kg human moving very slowly (0.2 m/s).
- the kinetic energy of a tennis ball moving at 23 km/h (14 mph).
A mega joule is equivalent to one million joules, or more practically:
“the kinetic energy of a one-tonne vehicle moving at 160 km/h (100 mph)” (Wikipedia again).
Kinetic energy refers to the energy an object possesses when it’s in motion, so the energy needed to get it from a stationary to a moving state.
Last year 1.6 billion phones were put on the market (UNEP), which required the following amount of energy for production: 1.6billion * 175MJ = 280 petajoules. The total global production of mobile phones thus requires an amount of energy equivalent to accelerate nearly 280 billion Volkswagen Golfs from 0 to 100mph. Bear in mind there are currently ‘only’ 1 billion cars in the world.
UPDATE [20th July]
Producing 1.6 billion phones each year requires 280 Petajoules of energy, equivalent to the energy released from approximately 5600 Hiroshima bombs (280 Petajoules / 50 Terajoules). All with some help from my engineering friends.
These figures don’t even include the energy required in the use, nor in the disposal of mobile phones. Take into consideration that we replace our mobile devices on average every 18-24 months. Even before we throw the phone away, we keep them in storage at home for at least 2 years before we chuck it, hopefully, into an appropriate waste stream. Storage delays recycling, which means we can’t substitute virgin materials with resources we could’ve otherwise have extracted from old mobile phones.
What to do?
Research shows that holding onto phones for longer reduces their environmental impact. So keep your mobile phone for as long as you can, until it breaks and can’t be repaired. Most people stop using their phone before it’s reached its end of life. Once you wish to throw it away, make sure you give it up to an appropriate programme where it can be treated properly.
Storing electronics influences the amount of products entering the waste stream before they can be appropriately treated. Nokia published results on a survey on how many mobile phones ended up in storage before being disposed of, which revealed the difficulty in collecting mobile phones, as nearly half were kept in home drawers (Cobbing, 2008) and merely 5% were collected for end of life treatment:
- 48% kept in storage
- 27% traded in for a new phone through vendor
- 13% passed on to another person
- 7% did something else
- 3% national collection
- 2% recycled through Nokia take back points
I’m certainly a little sad about my phone taking up quite so much energy, but I have been using this little simple thing when I go travelling over the past 5 years and it’s still going strong. No obsolescence here (as compared to the iPhone I also own… woe betide the age of communication).
Source for MJ figures: Analysis of material and energy consumption of mobile phones in China, Jinglei Yu, Eric Williams , Meiting Ju