Can you tell your litter from your waste?

There is a systemic difference between the words wasting and littering, which has huge effects on the potential for recycling and a cleaner society. This startling difference in language and thus behaviour became clear to me on a recent trip I made to Florianópolis, the capital of one of Brazil’s most developed states, Santa Catarina.

11-hour bus ride to the south

There I was welcomed by NovoCiclo, a pioneering sustainable business with a mission to create a zero waste society. Founded by Rodrigo Sabatini, the organisation delivers services to clients that improve the organisation’s or household’s waste management and installs aesthetic systems to change behaviour.

For the fact of the matter is that our global waste problem is as much a behaviour issue as it is an infrastructure problem. 

Litter vs. Waste

Given today’s production and consumption processes it is impossible to produce litter. However, it is possible to generate zero waste.

Litter, by definition, “consists of waste products that have been disposed of improperly, without consent, in an inappropriate location.” (Wiki-P). 

In contrast, waste is an object the holder discards, intends to discard or is required to discard.” (European Union) 

There are many different types of waste, which only become litter when discarded of inappropriately and when it becomes contaminated, infected and mixed up with organic waste and other types of wet waste. To avoid littering, separation of waste types is key to make recycling and material recovery as effective as possible.

Below is a photo of different types of wastes that have been dumped next to a river. I took this picture in 2008, not knowing I’d return to the issue 4 years later. Children played right next to this heap, which contains organic waste, plastic and household items – all which could have been recycled and disposed of had it been separated and collected correctly.

Dumped types of waste in a favela in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte

On a global scale, I wasn’t aware that the size of the Pacific Rubbish Patch is half the size of Brazil and consists of 100 million tonnes of rubbish. This is the issue NovoCiclo are trying to solve, and it begins in our homes.

The Great Pacific Garbage patch is half the size of Brazil and is generated through a combination of unsustainable behaviour and poor infrastructure

The amount of waste we collect determines the efficiency of the recycling chain and system, which is made up of various processes depicted in the image below regarding electronic waste. If collection is low, end-processing is expensive and produced little output in terms of recycled materials. Each year, around 40 million tonnes of e-waste is produced, 80% of which ends up in dumps, landfills or is informally recycled in China or in African states.

Recycling chain, taken from UNEP and Umicore

Until recently I wasn’t aware of the difference between litter and waste, which is more pronounced in Brazilian Portuguese. ‘Lixo’ (pronounced lee-sho) refers to a mixture of different types of waste that cannot be disposed of correctly. ‘Residuos’ refers to waste types that have been separated for recycling, i.e. plastics, paper, organic waste etc.

An innovative business solution

NovoCiclo specialises in providing zero waste services, helping clients like residential buildings, companies and government bodies to create zero waste.

Their primary strategy is behaviour change through design, marketing and aesthetics. The concept is simple: set up a system that helps people separate their waste as much as possible. What once was a heap of mixed rubbish items turns into an organised, clean and tidy collection site.

This is one of the systems designed by NovoCiclo’s team. It’s intended for household use and provides different compartments and space for waste types: plastic, paper, electronic, organic and glass amongst others.

Nicely designed waste sorter for households

NovoCiclo provide great looking infographics for clients that breakdown how much waste was separated, what type of wastes were generated and how much CO2, trees, water and energy clients saved. They typically reduce client’s litter production by over 90%, facilitating correct waste disposal  so that as much as possible is recycled.

They’ve also set up a big recycling shipping container in the city, Espaço Recicle, intended to raise awareness and engage people in waste separation. Anybody can walk in on one end with their separated waste in exchange for reward points. These points can be exchanged for recycled and upcycled products on the other end of the shipping container.

Customers can pick up and buy upcycled and recycled products with the points they collect when handing in waste

Tackling the global waste issue

I often hear people discredit the effect of individual action on issues such as global climate change, rising CO2 and degradation of our ecosystems. If my trip to Florianopolis taught me one thing, it’s that all of us are responsible for the waste we produce as individuals. To make recycling and waste management as efficient as possible, collection rates need to be high. The more households separate waste, the better and more efficient collection can be. Our input determines the efficiency of the recycling chain. 

What you can do

  1. Educate yourself – understand your local waste management system and collection
  2. Separate your waste – especially try to keep your wet/organic waste separate from dry waste (paper, plastic, etc.)
  3. Dispose correctly – especially e-waste, take it to credited e-waste recyclers
  4. Engage yourself – take it one step further and try to recycle your food waste in a wormery or in a compost box

How mobile phones are 280 billion cars and 5,600 atomic bombs

I started looking at the production, use and disposal of electronic goods to figure out the environmental impacts along each of these stages. I found a paper that revealed just how much energy it takes to produce a mobile phone, which analysed the four processes involved in mobile phone production. The final result: the production of one mobile phone is equal to the energy of 175 one-tonne vehicles moving at 100 mph (source at the end of post).

Last year 1.6 billion phones were produced globally, with 60% of production coming from China.

Energy use breakdown

Here’s the joulific breakdown of energy required to produce a phone. Manufacturing mobile phones occurs in four stages, listed below.

    1. Materials extraction 23MJ
    2. Component manufacturing 120MJ
    3. Assembly 2MJ
    4. Packaging & transport 30MJ


Measuring the energy in joules- bite size recap

The units used for measuring energy use is joules. A joule represents the work done in applying a force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one metre per second, per second (no type here). What on earth does this mean?

Here are some practical examples, straight from Wiki-P:

One joule in everyday life is approximately:

      • the energy required to lift a small apple one metre straight up. (A mass of about 102 g)
      • the energy released when that same apple falls one metre to the ground.
      • the energy released as heat by a person at rest, every 1/60th of a second.
      • the kinetic energyof a 50 kg human moving very slowly (0.2 m/s).
      • the kinetic energy of a tennis ball moving at 23 km/h (14 mph).

A mega joule is equivalent to one million joules, or more practically:

“the kinetic energy of a one-tonne vehicle moving at 160 km/h (100 mph)” (Wikipedia again).

Kinetic energy refers to the energy an object possesses when it’s in motion, so the energy needed to get it from a stationary to a moving state.

Global scale

Last year 1.6 billion phones were put on the market (UNEP), which required the following amount of energy for production: 1.6billion * 175MJ = 280 petajoules. The total global production of mobile phones thus requires an amount of energy equivalent to accelerate nearly 280 billion Volkswagen Golfs from 0 to 100mph. Bear in mind there are currently ‘only’ 1 billion cars in the world.


Volkswagen Golf Mk5, weight 1.3 tonnes

UPDATE [20th July]

Producing 1.6 billion phones each year requires 280 Petajoules of energy, equivalent to the energy released from approximately 5600 Hiroshima bombs (280 Petajoules / 50 Terajoules). All with some help from my engineering friends.

The Hiroshima nuclear bomb released roughly 50 Terajoules energy.

These figures don’t even include the energy required in the use, nor in the disposal of mobile phones. Take into consideration that we replace our mobile devices on average every 18-24 months. Even before we throw the phone away, we keep them in storage at home for at least 2 years before we chuck it, hopefully, into an appropriate waste stream. Storage delays recycling, which means we can’t substitute virgin materials with resources we could’ve otherwise have extracted from old mobile phones.

What to do?

Research shows that holding onto phones for longer reduces their environmental impact. So keep your mobile phone for as long as you can, until it breaks and can’t be repaired. Most people stop using their phone before it’s reached its end of life. Once you wish to throw it away, make sure you give it up to an appropriate programme where it can be treated properly.

Storing electronics influences the amount of products entering the waste stream before they can be appropriately treated. Nokia published results on a survey on how many mobile phones ended up in storage before being disposed of, which revealed the difficulty in collecting mobile phones, as nearly half were kept in home drawers (Cobbing, 2008) and merely 5% were collected for end of life treatment:

  • 48% kept in storage
  • 27% traded in for a new phone through vendor
  • 13% passed on to another person
  • 7% did something else
  • 3% national collection
  • 2% recycled through Nokia take back points

Envirofone, Mazuma and Pound4Phone are all highly rated mobile phone recycling services that are easy and simple to use.

I’m certainly a little sad about my phone taking up quite so much energy, but I have been using this little simple thing when I go travelling over the past 5 years and it’s still going strong. No obsolescence here (as compared to the iPhone I also own… woe betide the age of communication).

Source for MJ figures: Analysis of material and energy consumption of mobile phones in China, Jinglei Yu, Eric Williams , Meiting Ju 


Gotta keep it up

Why the city and cooperatives matter

Yesterday I trekked across Sao Paulo to Barra Funda to visit one of the city’s best waste cooperatives, Coopermiti. I say one of the best because cooperatives that deal with waste tend to have a bad reputation of being disorganised, inefficient and unfortunately dirty too (this came from two sector professionals who work with cooperatives).

Coopermiti are unique in that they secured a partnership with the Municipality of São Paulo, meaning that they are contracted by the city to deal with e-waste. Currently they recycle around 20,000 tonnes a month, employ around 30 ‘cooperadores’ and are pioneers in that they treat all types of e-waste. They receive the waste through donations and collection points and separate individual components before sending them off to appropriate recycling treatment centres. They are 100% efficient and create zero waste themselves.

I spent two hours there speaking with the President and then taking a tour around the place. Their employees are previously low-skilled or unemployed workers who are trained in the ways of a cooperative and learn to fix and dismantle waste, giving them great technical skills. Here’s Ana dismantling a desktop using the right type of equipment and protection.

Ana doing her thing

Usually when the private sector deals with waste, they only treat stuff that’s high in value: computers, laptops, mobile phones, printers etc. Nobody cares about hair dryers, keyboards, vacuum cleaners, electric shavers etc. Why? Because these products don’t contain the gold, silver, copper, palladium or tantalum found in ICT. Tantalum is made of coltan ore, which can fetch US$ 500 on the market, is found in mobile phones and mined in the Congo (in effect financing militias that force people into slave labour and destroy ecosystems).

What’s more, this cooperative also tackles social issues of digital exclusion and unemployment. However, without the help of the government they wouldn’t be able to operate.

So, there are some issues in our world that the private sector alone cannot solve. Treating all types of e-waste is one of them, which requires innovative and new types of partnerships, technology and infrastructure.

And when e-waste is this pretty, who wouldn’t want to work with it?

Instagram can make anything look pretty. I like these motherboards though.

Taking it back to the original source

Do you know how much aluminium you consume per year? Could you take a guess at how much copper your friend in a country like Brazil, Nigeria or China consumes?

It’s a bit of an odd question to ask yourself. Usually we’re asked to consider how much water or energy we consume, to which most of us splutter out some figures we don’t even really understand, like 5kWh (a unit I’m still getting my head around, but apparently most professionals don’t get it either, so here’s a good explanation if you wish to learn more, from David MacKay).

Yet, the electronics we own consume vast amounts of non-renewable resources. We’ve had an impact on the environment in just buying the product, even before we turn it on. I came across some data regarding the extraction of aluminium to produce electronic goods and I spent 40 minutes checking calculations because I couldn’t believe how much waste is generated.

The figures just reinforce how critical it is to recycle materials from electronics.

Metals for electronics: crash course
To make electronics, we need to extract metals. Some of the most popular metals found in electronics are:

  • Gold
  • Silver
  • Palladium
  • Copper
  • Tin
  • Aluminium

There are also some less well-known metals, like ruthenium, antimony, bismuth, selenium and indium.

Your average mobile phone contains around 250mg of silver, 24mg gold, 9mg palladium and 9g of copper (according to this report by the UNEP). That’s not much on an individual scale, but consider that in 2010 1.6 billion new mobile phones entered the market.

For the 1.6 billion mobile phones produced in 2010, this required:

  • 400 tonnes of silver (equivalent to the weight of 80 African bush elephants)
  • 38.4 tonnes of gold (7 elephants)
  • 14,400 kg of palladium (2 elephants)
  • 14,400 tonnes of copper (2 elephants)

In 2007 the combined sales of mobile phones and personal computers represented 3% of global supply of silver and gold, 13% of palladium and 15% of copper [1].

If we continue mining silver at the rate at which we did in 2010, we’re left with 23 years worth of reserves. So by 2033 all the silver in the ground will have been mined. The good news is that silver is fairly substitutable, but that doesn’t solve the issue of resource scarcity. For copper it’s been estimated we have about 39 years left and for gold about 20 years.

If these figures have stoked some interest, take a look at the Resource Revolution Report. It contains lots of information on all types of resources and how we’re guzzling them away.

Back to the start
In answer to the original question, people living in a country with a GDP higher than US$25,000 are said to consume between 15-35 kg of aluminium per year. Individuals living in a country with a GDP lower than US $5,000 consume less than 5kg of aluminium per year. The aluminium is embodied in TVs, laptops and computers amongst others.
To produce 1 tonne of aluminium, you need to extract 4-5 tonnes of bauxite first, which then gets processed into aluminium. One tonne of bauxite generates 13 tonnes of waste. So one tonne of aluminium generates circa 65 tonnes of waste (13*5). Click on the image to the right for better detail.

For 10,000 televisions, you need to extract 6t of aluminium, which generates 390 tonnes of waste (equivalent to 36 new London Routemasters [2]).

So far, so good. Now, lets consider that 200 million new televisions were produced last year. This means 7,800,000 tonnes of waste produced to make the aluminium for 200 million TVs. This is equal to 300 million London Routemasters.

These facts are for aluminium alone. The extraction of copper, silver, gold and other materials further contribute waste and pollution to the environment, and human health.

All these numbers provide a somewhat clouded, jaded, view of the environmental impacts of electronics. It’s not easy to get your head around what 7,800,000,000 tonnes of solid waste looks likes, or even means.

What’s important to understand is that mining metals to produce electronics is driving resource depletion and waste generation. The facts speak for themselves and make a good case for recycling. According to the UN: “Recycling 1 kilogram of aluminium saves 5 to 8 kg of bauxite, 4 kg of chemicals and 14 kilowatts of electricity. It also produces 95% less air pollution.”

The origin of electronic and digital life begins deep down in mine ores. The question is how long and how deep can we continue digging?

“A river bleached white with the waste of aluminium production, emerging into red lake.” Darrow, Louisiana – J. Henry Fair


[1] The Global Aluminium Recycling Committee. Global aluminium recycling: a cornerstone of sustainable development. London: International Aluminium Institute, 2006.

[2] Weighing around 11 tonnes each according to Wikipedia (no shame in using it as reference).

E-waste lands: a story of waste through photos

Through a friend I happened to stumble across this great documentary project by photographer Sophie Gerrard.

Her images typically represent e-waste lands, created through the illegal shipping of electronic waste to countries like India and China. In my research I’ve come across studies that have estimated that of the e-waste that is supposedly collected for recycling, 80% gets shipped off to developing countries in Asia and Africa. Pretty shocking.

In the EU, even though we have implemented the EU WEEE Directive and the Basel Convention, this report by Greenpeace states that 75% of e-waste remains part of the ‘hidden flow’ of electronic rubbish; ‘hidden’ because it slips through regulation and recycling.

Click on the image above to view Sophie Gerrard’s E-wasteland project.

The Dark Side of our Digital Revolution

Digitisation – it’s the latest thing and it’s everywhere. Over the last 30 years, increasingly rapid technological developments have thrust us into what is often called the third industrial revolution, with technology evolving from the analogue, mechanical, and electronic formats to the digital stage. Core to this revolution is the widespread use of digital logic circuits, aka motherboards, and printed wiring boards (the ubiquitous green plats covered in wiring and nodes). Some of our favourite devices have undergone digital surgery: cars, radios and even fridges are all receiving makeovers, being implanted with microchips, enhancing their functionality, speed and price.

The Digital Revolution has been accompanied by a boom in the electronics industry. One of the fastest growing industries worldwide, global sales almost reached $780 billion in 2012. This year, over 3.5 billion units of electronic goods will be sold all over the world; goods that bring us closer together, allow us to stay in touch, shrink the digital divide and grant more people access to information.

What’s more, the Digital Revolution has a powerful social dimension. As described in this CNN article, the kind of attachment to digital devices and brands displayed by their most zealous fans bears close parallels with religious devotion.

A shopper in Sydney celebrating his latest purchase: the iPad

It is impossible to deny the various benefits that the digital revolution has brought: more jobs, demand for skilled workers and efficient technologies that unleash creativity and innovation. The recent surge in tech start-ups is testimony to the relatively low barriers involved in setting up a tech company. More and more students are studying computer science and programming is becoming an essential skill.

However, all is not sunshine and rainbows. There are signs that this digital revolution may be heading down a one-way street of consumption and environmental degradation.

A few startling facts:

  1. The UN has assessed that 20-50 million tonnes of electronic waste is produced every year;
  2. On average, electronics are replaced every 18 months by consumers;
  3. Between 2008 and 2012, 1 billion computers entered the waste stream;
  4. Nearly 1 million tonnes of metal were used to manufacture PCs sold in 2007;
  5. 50-80% of electronic waste collected for recycling is shipped to developing countries, where it is dismantled in ‘back yard’ operations.

It is in the nature of the electronics industry that major producers like Apple, Dell and HP gain their competitive advantage by constantly pushing the innovation and features of products, and maintaining a pipeline of innovations, churning out new products every 12-18 months.

This short-term innovation cycle feeds the consumer frenzy described above, which further fuels the need to outdo the competition by developing new technologies.

The operations of innovation, product development and marketing undertaken by brand name firms are completed in developed countries. The less glamorous and more toxic tasks of assembling and manufacturing electronics take place in developing countries, like China.

“Designed by Apple in California. Assembled in China.”

Current recycling rates are shockingly low, at about 10% of global production of electronic waste. As such, the electronics industry could almost be characterised as the pinnacle of the linear economy model: extract, produce, use, dispose. The Basel Action Network and Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition found that in the USA, between 50-80% of the e-waste collected for recycling is exported to developing countries illegally. There, e-waste is dismantled in open acid baths, burnt in open fires near rivers and causes toxic harm to human and environmental health. Workers are paid a pittance of $1.5 a day to extract materials such as copper from mobile phones, printed wiring boards and other familiar devices.

The lack of an appropriate legislative infrastructure means that producers are currently not held accountable for the production of externalities and the ultimate destination of over 91% of e-waste branded products. Despite the EU having implemented the Basel Convention (that bans the exportation of electronic waste to developing countries) and the EU WEEE Directive, 75% of the electronic waste on the continent remains part of the ‘hidden flow’ of e-waste, which slips through regulation and recycling.

The illegal exportation of electronic waste is not without its supporters, most notably former Chief of the World Bank Larry Summers who appears to think that some parts of the world suffer from being “under-polluted”, with air pollution levels that are “probably vastly inefficiently low compared with Los Angeles or Mexico City”. Some arguments speak for themselves.

An e-waste worker in Guiyu, China

What’s more, all of this “rubbish” is actually astonishingly valuable. For example, you can extract more gold from a tonne of mobile phones than you can from a tonne of gold mine ore. So, it might be true that landfills are the mines of the future.

The vicious model: produce, use, dispose.

By now you might have spotted the vicious circle: demand for electronics is nourished through brand loyalty, marketing and planned obsolescence, which puts pressure on raw materials. The global electronics industry is a complex network of brand firms and suppliers, with manufacturers exposing their staff to hazardous and unsuitable working environments, whilst their clients like Apple are being criticised for doing little to improve working conditions.

With electronics being replaced at least every 18 months, the waste is piling up and policies have failed to incentivise an appropriate infrastructure and take back schemes to deal with all this rubbish.

What lies ahead

This linear economic model of manufacturing simply will not work. At this current rate, we might see some of the following consequences in future:

1)    As the developing world industrialises, greater demand for electronics will increase the need to extract more resources, which are already dwindling;
2)    Companies are ever increasing their rate of innovation and product replacement, meaning that more products will become obsolete faster;
3)    Rising mountains of e-waste and poor legal and recycling infrastructure means we will continue to export waste to developing countries.

The need for change is thus urgent and the opportunities exist. The recent Rio+20 conference, despite its failure to produce concrete targets, recognised that “fundamental changes in the way societies consume and produce are indispensable for achieving global sustainable development”.

Calls for the private sector to engage with a green economy have been made, as the drivers for economic growth we have relied on thus far seem to be vanishing. It is important to recognise how such an innovative industry is actually undermining our ability to innovate in future and grow a sustainable society.

Chips and silicon

It’s the epitome of an input-output economy gone wrong: the electronics industry is guzzling up resources, fuels a frenzied consumer culture and is the prime perpetrator of in-built obsolescence. Products has quite a guilty record in terms of environmental footprint and what’s more, high-tech companies are rather secretive about production processes.

Yet we love our gadgets. And some apps are great, helping us save time and outsmart our peers. I particularly love the iPhone app that tells me exactly which Tube carriage I need to get on so I’m closest to the exit when I alight.

Chips and silicon – new kinds of high-tech resources that drive the digital revolution forwards. I’m exploring the sustainability impact of the electronics industry. The digital revolution has taken us by storm, as more and more products become digital, receiving that microchip makeover. This blog will unravel how the electronics industry is affecting our resources, human health, the environment, and what opportunities exist to make the industry more sustainable.

Let’s start with a general overview.